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Congenital abnormalities of female reproductive system SlideShare

CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Mrs. Vahitha.S Lecturer CON JIPMER 2. INTRODUCTION • The human female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the male's sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the. Congenital anomalies of female reproductive system Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website 1. Embryology and congenital anomalies of the female genital system DR DR: MANAL BEHERY Zagazig University , Egypt. 2. Components which form female and male reproductive systems are:1. Gonads Ovaries or testes2. Genital Duct Systems Mesonephric and Paramesonephric ducts3. External Genitalia. 3. Genotype of embryo 46XX or 46XY is established at. Congenital malformations of female genital tract. 1. Congenital Malformations of Female Genital Organs Dr. Salini Mandal B.G. Lecturer, Dept of OBG FMHMC. 2. • These are genetic in origin. • Major anatomic defect of the FGT is usually assoc with normal gonadal function and urinary tract abnormality. 3

Congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract occur in a few percent of the female population, and may affect: The External Genitals. This includes a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue around the opening of the vagina are joined together). The Hymen Congenital anomalies of the female genital tract are developmental issues that form in the embryo. These formations can occur in the vagina, ovaries, uterus or cervix. The development of a baby is a complex process, and there are several factors that can interrupt it. While the exact cause is. Congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive tract are developmental issues that form in the embryo. It can be in the vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes that occur while the child is growing in the womb. A few percentage of the female population has congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract congenital developmental defects of mullerian derivates associated with varying malformations of the female reproductive system 1,2,3,4 Also called uterine/vaginal anomalie Raga F, Bauset C, Remohi J et al: Reproductive impact of congenital Mullerian anomalies. Hum Reprod 12: 2277-81, 1997 : PubMed: 21. Blair RG: Pregnancy associated with congenital malformations of the reproductive tract. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 67: 36, 1960 : 22. Semmens J P: Congenital anomalies of female genital tract. Obstet Gynecol 19.

What are the abnormalities of the female reproductive system. Obstruction or malfunction of the tubes, endometriosis, polyps and uterine fibroids, structural malformations of the uterus. Let's see what these disorders consist of and why they affect the fertility of women. There are certain defects of the female genital apparatus that can make. Summary. Structural anomalies of the female genital tract may be present at birth or may be acquired later in life. Common congenital anomalies of the female genital tract are an imperforate hymen and anomalies of Müllerian duct fusion.Impaired fusion of the Müllerian ducts can result in duplication of the uterus, cervix, and/or vagina, while incomplete fusion results in an intrauterine and. If you have problems viewing PDF files, download the latest version of Adobe Reader. For language access assistance, contact the NCATS Public Information Officer. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - PO Box 8126, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 - Toll-free: 1-888-205-231

Abnormalities of the Female Reproductive Tract (Müllerian Defects) Download a PDF of this fact sheet here. Like other organs in the body, a woman's reproductive organs take shape when she is still a fetus inside her mother's uterus Congenital reproductive tract disorders are abnormalities in a newborn girl's reproductive organs that occured during development of the fetus. The disorder is present at birth but in some cases problems may not develop until the child reaches puberty. Patients can be seen by Texas Children's experts in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Female Reproductive System. CANDIDIASIS Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on upper side of the penis near the glans studied chemically and cytologically to detect genetic abnormalities, biochemical disorders, and maternal-fetal blood incompatibility The most common congenital abnormality of the ovary is ovarian dysgenesis or . Ovarian dysgenesis has been described in several domestic animal species and has been associated with various chromosomal abnormalities (monosomy X or Turner syndrome, trisomy XXX, or Klinefelter syndrome XXY)

Congenital abnormalities of reproductive syste

  1. Female Reproductive Anomalies (Congenital Anomalies) Some women are born with abnormalities of the female reproductive system, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Sometimes the anomalies are single and sometimes multiple. Many congenital abnormalities are asymptomatic, so they are often unrecognized by patients.
  2. Congenital Abnormalities Of Male Reproductive System. Malformation of genital tract is different in boys and girls as the structure of their genital tract are not the same. Genital tract deformities in boys: Undescended testes: It is one of the most common malformations in boys. Normally the two testes descend into the scrotum sac just before.
  3. Learn more about the categories of congenital anomalies of the vagina, cervix, uterus and adnexa that often lead to severe impairment of the menstrual and re..
  4. Other developmental disorders of the female reproductive tract include: Cloacal abnormalities: The cloaca is a tube-like structure. In the early stages of development, the urinary tract, rectum, and vagina all empty into this single tube. Later, the 3 areas separate and have their own openings

MRKH (Mayer-von Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser's Syndrome) is a congenital condition of the female reproductive system that affects approximately 1 out of every 5,000 females. Girls diagnosed with MRKH have vaginal agenesis, which refers to an absent or incomplete vagina Congenital Anomalies of the Genitourinary System. Kristina Suson, MD; Yegappan Lakshmanan, MD | January 31, 2020 | Contributor Information. Answer: C. Turner syndrome. A horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common type of GU fusion anomaly; it combines ectopia, malrotation, and vascular changes. [1] HSKs are more common in men than women (2:1. Generally, diseases outlined within the ICD-10 codes Q50-Q52 within Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities should be included in this category. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Congenital diseases and disorders of female genital organs Disorders of the Female Reproductive System The uterus may be in an abnormal position due to a number of factors. The causes of this displacement can be congenital or due to muscular changes, causing a shift from the normal position For just $1/month, you can help keep these videos free! Subscribe to my Patreon at http://www.patreon.com/pwbmd(Disclaimer: The medical information contained..

The most common congenital abnormality of the ovary is ovarian dysgenesis or .Ovarian dysgenesis has been described in several domestic animal species and has been associated with various chromosomal abnormalities (monosomy X or Turner syndrome, trisomy XXX, or Klinefelter syndrome XXY) Congenital Abnormalities of the Male Reproductive System and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders Ran S Rotem. Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts We also repeated the analysis after excluding boys diagnosed with chromosomal anomalies or congenital anomalies affecting the nervous. Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with syphilis.It is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.Babies typically have facial abnormalities such as rhagades (linear scars at the angle of the mouth), snuffles (nasal discharge), saddle nose, notched (Hutchinson) teeth, mulberry molars, and a short maxilla Congenital malformations of female genital tract 1. Congenital Malformations of Female Genital Organs Dr. Salini Mandal B.G. Lecturer, Dept of OBG FMHMC 2. • These are genetic in origin • Major anatomic defect of the FGT is usually assoc with normal gonadal function and urinary tract abnormality. 3

Congenital anomalies of female reproductive syste

Embryology and congenital anomalies of female reproductive

Congenital malformations of female genital tract - SlideShar

  1. Foxa1 and Foxa2 orchestrate development of the urethral tube and division of the embryonic cloaca through an autoregulatory loop with Shh Congenital anomalies of external genitalia affect approximately 1 in 125 live male births. Development of the genital tubercle, the precursor of the penis and clitoris, is regulated by the urethral plate epithelium, an endodermal signaling center
  2. Abnormalities of the Female Reproductive Organs: Adenomyosis, Uterine Fibroids, Macromastia, and More See online here Abnormalities of the female reproductive organs have been a matter of concern in females of reproductive age. These abnormalities can be congenital or acquired. Environmental or genetic anomalies can result in congenital
  3. Vaginal anomalies are abnormal structures that are formed during the prenatal development of the female reproductive system and rare congenital defects that result in an abnormal or absent vagina. When present, they are often found with uterine, skeletal and urinary abnormalities. This is because these structures, like the vagina, are most susceptible to disruption during crucial times of.
  4. Congenital abnormalities of female reproductive system pdf From the clinical point of view, many classifications have been proposed according to:A) Functional aspects based principally on the potential capacity of the uterine cavity and its musculature; B) Degree of failure in the fusion and müllerian development; C) Defects in the lateral and vertica
  5. Start studying Congenital Anomalies of the Female Genital System. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

The female body can produce a massive amount of antibodies and therefore kill the sperm before it can fertilize the egg. The most effective treatments are IUI insemination and IVF technology. One more type is infertility due to malformations and disorders in the reproductive system, e.g.: hymen, vagina or cervical canal atresia Congenital herpes virus infection is a group of anomalies that an infant may present as a result of maternal infection and subsequent foetal infection with herpes virus. This virus causes recurrent cutaneous infections in adults, often involving the lips or the genitalia. Herpes infections in other organs, such as the liver or central nervous. Congenital Abnormalities of the Male Reproductive System and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders Am J Epidemiol . 2018 Apr 1;187(4):656-663. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx367 Female reproductive tract development is a complex process intricately tied to the patterning of the male (Wolffian) reproductive tract and renal anlage. central precocious puberty is associated with a range of central nervous system disorders or tumors that initiate premature The most common congenital abnormality of the human female. Human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Abnormalities of the respiratory system include not only lung development but also the upper respiratory tract, the supporting musculoskeletal system and the vascular and neural system. In addition, some respiratory problems arise from prematurity of birth or difficulty with the birth process itself

Congenital Abnormalities of Reproductive Tract (Pediatric

Study question: What is the recommended diagnostic work-up of female genital anomalies according to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) system? Summary answer: The ESHRE/ESGE consensus for the diagnosis of female genital anomalies is presented. What is known already: Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies. Duct system (including the epididymis and the vas deferens) Accessory glands (including the prostate gland and seminal vesicles) There are many different urogenital disorders. Some disorders are due to abnormal development of the baby during pregnancy. These are known as congenital disorders and are sometimes seen before birth using ultrasound Disorders of the Reproductive System - Chapter Summary. In the lessons in this chapter, our instructors will teach you information about the disorders that are found in the reproductive system The male reproductive system (or tract) includes: penis testes epididymides ductus deferentia ejaculatory ducts seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands It can be imaged using almost the entire range of imaging modalities but ultra.. Persistent cloaca is a rare congenital defect that only occurs in females. The malformation occurs during fetal development when the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract fail to separate. As a result, a baby is born with all three grouped together, forming a single channel. Various diagnostic procedures pre and post-natally are used

Abnormalities of the Testis and Epididymis of Animals. Cryptorchidism is a failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum. It is seen in all domestic animals; it is common in stallions and boars and is the most common disorder of sexual development in dogs (13%). Cryptorchidism is caused by a combination of genetic, epigenetic. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urogenital system range from mild, asymptomatic malformations to severe, life-threatening pathologies and complex ethical dilemmas. Many congenital abnormalities are part of a syndrome whose impact extends beyond the urogenital system - for example, there are some congenital urological abnormalities. Causes and Diagnoses of Congenital Anomalies of the Bladder and Genitalia. The exact cause of congenital GU anomalies is not completely understood. However, we do know that most anomalies of the reproductive system occur during the eighth week of development and are likely due to the arrest of development of the preliminary structures

The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process. The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vulva, which leads to the vagina, the vaginal opening, to the uterus; the uterus, which holds the developing fetus; and the ovaries, which. Start studying Chapter 3 - Congenital Anomalies of the Female Genital System. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Even so, congenital malformations remain a matter of concern because they are detected in nearly 3% of infants, and 20% of perinatal deaths are purportedly due to congenital anomalies. The inherent pattern of normal development of the genital system can be viewed as one directed toward somatic femaleness, unless development is directed by. Reproductive system disease, any of the diseases and disorders that affect the human reproductive system. They include abnormal hormone production by the ovaries or the testes or by other endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, or adrenals. Such diseases can also be caused by genetic or congenital abnormalities, infections, tumours. Given the pivotal importance of correct reproductive function, it is confounding that disorders of sex development (DSDs) are among the most common congenital abnormalities in humans (Lee et al. J Pediatr Urol 8 (6):611-615, 2012). Urogenital development is a highly complex process involving coordinated interactions between molecular and.

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the infection of a fetus with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, during intrauterine life.. CMV is among the most common infections that cause defects during fetal development. It is often grouped with other bacteria, parasites, and viruses that cause similar illnesses in the newborn, known under the acronym TORCH, which includes Toxoplasma Summary of Congenital toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no symptoms in adult humans. Toxoplasmosis can be spread by eating undercooked food that contains cysts, exposure to cat feces, and rarely through blood transfusions The mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts from the intermediate kidney play an important part in the development of the male reproductive system. The paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts are those that develop lateral to the gonads and mesonephric duct system and have a leading role in the development of the female A reproductive system disease is any disease that impairs the ability to reproduce. Such diseases may arise from genetic or congenital abnormalities, such as hermaphroditism, from functional problems such as impotence or infertility or reproductive tract infections, such as sexually transmitted diseases

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine concerning the male and female reproductive systems. It encompasses a variety of reproductive conditions, their prevention and assessment, as well as their subsequent treatment and prognosis. Reproductive medicine has allowed the development of artificial reproductive techniques (ARTs) which have. Within this classification congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities are (Q00-Q99) but excludes inborn errors of metabolism (E70-E90). (ICD) ICD-10 was endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly in May 1990 and came into use in WHO Member States as from 1994 Congenital malformations of the female reproductive system are any congenital anomalies that affect the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, hymen, and/or vulva. Any of these anomalies can affect the normal reproductive and sexual functions of affected women. Epidemiology. Prevalence of congenital uterine anomalies (CUAs) Check Out Female Reproductive System on eBay. Fill Your Cart With Color today! Over 80% New & Buy It Now; This is the New eBay. Find Female Reproductive System now

Congenital abnormalities of reproductive system

Congenital uterine anomalies are the most common in the female reproductive system. Recent improvement in uterine imaging techniques has increased the frequency of their diagnosis. Uterine anomalies are suspected to have a significant effect on human fecundity, antepartum, and puerperium issues Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities. Congenital abnormality. Abnormality of the genitourinary system. Abnormality of the genital system. Abnormal reproductive system morphology. Abnormal external genitalia. Abnormality of female external genitalia. Abnormality of the clitoris. Abnormal size of the clitoris. Decreased. reproductive tract epithelium and the expression of uterine epithelial estrogen receptor alpha and the progesterone receptor (Cunha et al., 2018). The topic, development of the human female reproductive tract, is important for both academic and clinical reasons. Many congenital malformations of the female reproductive tract result from perturbatio Congenital anomalies can affect the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries of baby girls. While some of these conditions are noticed as soon as the baby is born, others aren't typically discovered until later in her life. Birth defects of the vulva or vagina are very rare, affecting less than one percent of female babies

Congenital anomalies of the female genital tract

Normally, the urethra and vagina are separate in females. In rare cases a birth defect causes the urethra and vagina to become one. This is known as urogenital sinus. Urogenital sinus symptoms depend on how severe the condition is. During development, the urogenital sinus will form two separate. Reproductive Implications and Management of Congenital Uterine Anomalies Scientific Impact Paper No. 62 November 2019 Please cite this paper as:Akhtar MA, Saravelos SH, Li TC, Jayaprakasan K, on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Reproductive Implications and Management of Congenital Uterine Anomalies A comprehensive description of the reproductive system of the female cynomolgus monkey was reported earlier [32]. In the absence of a mating end point, fertility can be assessed in a targeted male or female reproduction study, or specific reproductive end points can be incorporated into the design of a subchronic or chronic toxicity study

The female reproductive system has several parts. The uterus is where a fetus, or baby, grows. It is a hollow, pear‑shaped organ with a muscular wall. Print this slide. The Female Reproductive System. There are two ovaries, one on either side of the uterus. Ovaries make eggs and hormones like estrogen and progesterone INTRODUCTION: An understanding of congenital anomalies as they are encountered in clinical practice is greatly enhanced by not only a knowledge of normal embryology and the mechanism of formation of normal infants but also an insight into the processes that result in the development of anomalies 1, 2, 3, 4.An awareness of malformations and a systematic examination and appraisal of every. FastStats is an official application from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and puts access to topic-specific statistics at your fingertips

Congenital anomalies of female reproductive systemEmbryology

Congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive tract

  1. ESHRE/ESGE female genital anomalies classification system, arcuate uterus, septate uterus, ultrasound, female infertility, female reproductive tract, uterine abnormalities Introduction Congenital uterine anomalies are relatively common with the reported prevalence ranging between 5.5 and 8% ( Chan et al. , 2011a )
  2. Musculoskeletal and limb disorders together form the largest group of congenital defects that occur in Australia. The three most commonly occurring are developmental dysplasia of the hip, cleft palate, cleft lip and palate. Some defects appear as obvious malformations, such as syndactyly and limb reductions
  3. Developmental anomalies of the müllerian duct system represent some of the most fascinating disorders that obstetricians and gynecologists encounter. The müllerian ducts are the primordial anlage of the female reproductive tract. They differentiate to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, the uterine cervix, and the superior aspect of the vagina
  4. A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause. Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental. The disabilities can range from mild to severe. Birth defects are divided into two main types: structural disorders in which problems are seen with the shape of a body part and functional.

INTRODUCTION. Congenital uterine anomalies (CUAs) may lead to symptoms such as pelvic pain, prolonged or otherwise abnormal bleeding at the time of menarche, recurrent pregnancy loss, or preterm delivery, and thus may be identified in patients, including adolescents, who present with these disorders A double uterus is a rare congenital abnormality. In a female fetus, the uterus starts out as two small tubes. As the fetus develops, the tubes normally join to create one larger, hollow organ — the uterus. Sometimes, however, the tubes don't join completely. Instead, each one develops into a separate structure

Congenital Anomalies of Female Reproductive Trac

The cut surface of the resected breast tissue reveals a 3 x 3 x 2 cm firm mass with stellate borders. The center of the mass is firm, scirrhous and white because of the desmoplasia. There are areas of yellowish necrosis in the portions of neoplasm infiltrating into the surrounding breast. Such tumors appear very firm and non-mobile on physical. Intersex conditions have been described in several domestic animal species. True hermaphrodites are rare and have both ovarian and testicular tissue and exhibit anomalies of the external genitalia. The karyotype is variable and may be a chimera, mosaic, or unknown. Pseudohermaphroditism, often referred to as sex reversal syndrome, is more. Robert L. Barbieri, in Yen and Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology (Eighth Edition), 2019 Uterine Factor Infertility. Congenital uterine anomalies impact reproductive and obstetric outcomes. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 retrospective and 4 prospective studies involving 3477 women, only the septate uterus was associated with a reduced rate of spontaneous pregnancy (RR 0.89; 95%. Reproductive disorders are diseases involving the reproductive system, including reproductive tract infections, congenital abnormalities, cancers of the reproductive system and sexual dysfunction. Answer the quiz if you have an interest in the subject. All the best

Congenital uterine abnormalities are rare, but they do occur. Less than 5% women have congenital uterine anomalies [1]. A congenital condition is typically present at birth. So, if you have a congenital abnormality of the uterus, it means you were born with the defect. Usually, your uterus develops while you are growing in the womb as two sections Anatomic gynecologic anomalies, including congenital absence of the vagina, defects in lateral and vertical fusion of the mullerian ducts, and disorders of sexual development, occur with surprising frequency in referral practices of reproductive endocrinology and reproductive surgery

Developmental Abnormalities of the Female Reproductive

Congenital malformation of female genitalia, unspecified. Q52.9 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM Q52.9 became effective on October 1, 2020 Müllerian duct anomalies. Dr Mohamed Saber and Dr Jeremy Jones et al. Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital abnormalities that occur when the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) do not develop correctly. This may be as a result of complete agenesis, defective vertical or lateral fusion, or resorption failure Congenital abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are defects that are present at birth. They can occur as a result of genetic defects, environmental conditions, infections, poisoning, medication taken by the mother, or poor maternal nutrition. In some cases, it is a combination of these factors that causes the defect

Male reproductive system disorders and diseases

What are the abnormalities of the female reproductive syste

The male reproductive system (or tract) includes: penis testes epididymides ductus deferentia ejaculatory ducts seminal vesicles prostate bulbourethral glands It can be imaged using almost the entire range of imaging modalities but ultra.. Female reproductive system. Dr Daniel J Bell and Dr Tim Luijkx et al. The female reproductive system (or tract) comprises the vulva , vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries. It can be imaged using a wide range of imaging modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most useful Reproductive system disease - Reproductive system disease - Menorrhagia: Excessive menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be due to an imbalance of the thyroid or adrenal hormones, but it may also be the result of local disease of the pelvic organs. This local disease may be inflammation due to infection; it may be a benign tumour such as a fibroid; it may be a polyp, or projecting mass of. Female Reproductive System. Ovaries Uterus Cervix Vagina Vulva. Last updated 2/6/2019. Reproductive Management. Restraint. Last updated 2/6/2019. Pregnancy. Fetal Monsters Congenital Anomalies. Last updated 2/6/2019. Abortion. Infectious Causes Undetermined Cause Noninfectious Causes. Last updated 2/6/2019

Anomalies of the female genital tract - AMBOS

Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is a group of abnormalities affecting the kidneys or other structures of the urinary tract. The additional parts of the urinary tract that may be affected include the bladder, the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder (the ureters), and the tube that carries urine from. Cryptorchidism is a failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum and is seen in all domestic animals. It is a common disorder of sexual development in horses. It is thought to be a genetic disorder inherited from either parent. If both testicles are retained in the abdomen, the horse will be sterile Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens occurs in males when the tubes that carry sperm out of the testes (the vas deferens) fail to develop properly. Although the testes usually develop and function normally, sperm cannot be transported through the vas deferens to become part of semen. As a result, men with this condition are unable. The female reproductive system is a complicated but fascinating subject. It has the capability to function intimately with nearly every other body system for the purpose of reproduction. The female reproductive organs can be subdivided into the internal and external genitalia (see the images below)

More seriously, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly and other congenital malformations, Congenital Zika Syndrome. Pregnant women can also experience preterm birth and miscarriage. Evidence of sexual transmission prompted the investigation of male and female reproductive tracts as ZIKV reservoirs

Female Reproductive Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases

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