Convergence insufficiency. This is when your eye drifts out when you're looking at objects very close to your face. Your eyes can't properly align together or converge. Exophoria often includes.. The ultimate goal of treatment of exophoria (and convergence insufficiency and other conditions related to exophoria) is to improve the patient's ability to maintain fusion when converging and diverging Convergence insufficiency(CI) is a condition in which the patient has an inability to sustain sufficient convergence for comfortable near vision (Evans, 1997). Despite this simple definition, CI may probably be more correctly described as a syndrome . It is a condition that was first described by Von Graefe in 1855 and has been the focus of many studies since then
Both exophoria and exotropia are conditions that cause the eyes to drift outward. Both conditions may also be referred to as convergence insufficiency if they occur when you're using your eyes to.. Divergence Insufficiency. Divergence insufficiency patients are often symptomatic for diplopia and asthenopia at distance and may present with a decompensated distance phoria. Divergence insufficiency is associated with systemic and neurological disorders, so we must rule out any underlying conditions that may be causing it Patients with convergence insufficiency will have a remote near point of convergence or decreased convergence amplitudes or likely both. Alternate prism cover testing usually demonstrates a moderate to large exophoria or intermittent exotropia, greater at near than distance Convergence insufficiency is characterized by reduced fusional convergence at near and a variable exophoria (occasionally intermittent exotropia) at near. It usually appears in adolescence and gives rise to vague symptoms of eye strain, headache, diplopia, and blurring associated with close work Greater insufficiency in that the eyes have the inability to turn inward; near point of convergence of greater than 4 inches (10 cm), greater exophoria at near than at distance, and low AC/A ratio. Treatment options. Vision therapy is an effective treatment option. Fusional Vergence Dysfunctio
Convergence insufficiency characterized by one or more of the following diagnostic findings: Patient symptoms, High exophoria at near, reduced accommodative convergence / accommodation ratio, receded near point of convergence, low fusional vergence ranges and/or facility Decreased use of convergence leads to exophoria as is present in presbyopia (age-related diminution of vision). - Accommodation: Increased accommodation leads to esophoria as is seen in hypermetropia (far-sightedness) and also in individuals doing excessive near work While in Convergence Insufficiency (CI), we see greater exophoria at near than distance and receded Near Point of Convergence (NPC) as the hallmarks. Evidences show that, the prevalence of AI with comorbid CI is high among school-age children 2 and also, AI could be the primary reason for asthenopic symptoms in CI 3
The ultimate goal of treatment of exophoria (and convergence insufficiency and other conditions related to exophoria) is to improve the patient's ability to maintain fusion when converging and diverging. Treatment for exophoria can vary based on the severity of the symptoms. Some of the treatment options for exophoria may include the following Background: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of school nurse screening for hypermetropia and convergence insufficiency exophoria (CIE) in schoolchildren. Methods: Near point of convergence and distance visual acuity with +2.00D lenses were measured in 2097 children (6-15 years) during standard school nurse screening in the municipality of Randers, Denmark exophoria that is greater at near than distance, 2) a remote near point of convergence (NPC), i.e., a breakdown in convergence greater than 3 inches, or 3) decreased positive fusional convergence (PFC) at near.2,3 It often is associated with symptoms such as double vision, eyestrain, headaches Normal AC/A Conditions: Fusional Vergence Dysfunction, Basic Esophoria, and Basic Exophoria Introduction This chapter discusses the characteristics, diagnosis, and management of nonstrabismic binocular disorders associated with a normal accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio. Although there are some significant differences among these conditions, they are grouped together.
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common disorder of ocular alignment among both children and adults. It is characterized by an exophoria at near fixation and reports of horizontal diplopia and eye strain with prolonged reading. CI is diagnosed on the findings of a remote near point of convergence and decreased fusional convergence at near. Patients with convergence insufficiency often present as teenagers or in early adulthood, reporting gradually worsening eyestrain, blurred vision after brief periods of reading, and, sometimes,.. To diagnose convergence insufficiency, your eye doctor might: Take a medical history. This might include a health history as well as questions about problems you have with focusing, blurred or double vision, headaches, or other symptoms. Measure the near point of convergence (NPC). This test measures the distance from your eyes to where both. PurposeTo determine the outcomes of three different techniques of strabismus surgery in patients with convergence insufficiency intermittent exotropia (CI-X(T)).Patients and methodsSixty-seven patients with CI-X(T) with near-distance disparity (NDD) ≥10 prism diopter (PD) were included in this 1-year follow-up prospective study and were randomly divided into three groups: slanted bilateral. Objective improvement from base-in prisms for reading discomfort associated with mini-convergence insufficiency type exophoria in school children. Stavis M, Murray M, Jenkins P, Wood R, Brenham B, Jass J Binocul Vis Strabismus Q 2002;17(2):135-42
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a treatable near vision disorder and eye muscle coordination problem that can not be repaired with eye surgery, medications, standard eyeglasses, or contact lenses. Results from recent scientific studies show that at least 1 out of every 20 people (5%) have Convergence Insufficiency First, eye doctors find that a patient suffering from convergence insufficiency has a large exophoria. A phoria is the natural resting position of the eye Convergence insufficiency is a common problem with the eyes, and is the main culprit behind eyestrain, blurred vision, and headaches. Any NPC value greater than 10 cm is remote, and usually due to high exophoria at near. Divergence. Right eye diverging while left eye remains relatively stable - an example of partial divergence. THE CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCIES . Reference: Griffin, Ch. 3, pg. 64-73, 87-92. Scheiman, pg. 34-57; 225-232; 239-246. Richman and Cron, pg 16-17 . I. Introduction: A convergence insufficiency is a group of fusional dysfunctions that are characterized by: - increased exophoria at near with distant normal heterophoria Convergence Insufficiency (CI) When our two eyes point behind an object rather than directly at it, we call this eye misalignment an Exophoria.When an Exophoria occurs when looking at near objects like books or computers, it is called Convergence Insufficiency
Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a near vision problem that is gaining public recognition. Students with CI can present with a normal eye exam, but have significant difficulty performing close work (i.e., reading, computer work, desk work, playing video games, doing crafts, etc.). (exophoria at near). If the eyes do drift out, the person. Prism tends to be more effective for patients with divergence insufficiency, basic esophoria, and vertical heterophoria than for convergence insufficiency, basic exophoria, divergence excess and convergence excess.12,13 Therefore, prescribing universally for heterophorias based on any criterion may not alleviate your patients symptoms
Convergence insufficiency if you had to put a prism. Which would u choose CI usually exophoria. So need BASE IN Mallet unit tells us the amount of prism Prism usually for Px already got rx and don't really do exercises. One study showed it didn't improve any more than exercises. I had an occasional squint from a young age, and had it diagnosed recently, at 24 years of age. I am diagnosed with alternating exophoria. Orthoptic tests also revealed convergence insufficiency and lack of stereopsis. A few days of vision therapy where I had to fuse left and right images brought back stereopsis to some extent a. Accommodative Insufficiency Accommodative insufficiency occurs when the amplitude of accommodation (AA) is lower than expected for the patient's age and is not due to sclerosis of the crystalline lens.14,15 Patients with accommodative insufficiency usually demonstrate poor accommodative sustaining ability. b. Ill-Sustained Accommodatio What are the signs of convergence insufficiency (when patient is ortho at distance)? moderate to high exophoria or intermittent exotropia at near, reduced PFV at near, reduced vergence facility at near with BO prism, intermittent suppression at near, receded NPC, low AC/A ratio, fails binocular accommodative facility testing with +2.00, low MEM. Convergence insufficiency (CI) is the most common binocular vision disorder across the age spectrum, with an estimated prevalence of 4.2% to 17.6% in children 1,2,3,4,5, and 3.4% to 7.7% in adults.
Background: Although convergence insufficiency is a common diagnosis, a diagnosis does not always define the degree of the dysfunction. There are many other variables, from the patient's symptoms to the actual binocular deviation to other visual and non-visual factors. Convergence insufficiency is rarely the only condition that needs to be. 2. Convergence Paralysis secondary to ischemic infarction, demyelination, viral infection, Parkinson's Disease, & Parinaud's Syndrome. Interesting Facts about Convergence Insufficiency The majority of CI patients have a phoria between ortho and 6exo. Some patients with a high exophoria at near are asymptomatic and well compensated The diagnosis of with Convergence insufficiency is based on 4 main clinical criteria: 1. When the eyes drift out (Exophoria) more at near than in the distance. 4 prism Dioptres. 2. Receded Near Point of Convergence. Can't turn both eye in to fixate something inside 6 cm form their nose. 3 Conventional clinical wisdom suggests that many patients with concussion will typically manifest a large exophoria at near, that is one greater than 6 prism diopters (pd) or so, likely in conjunction with convergence insufficiency (CI). 2 However, a careful assessment of several relatively recent studies points to a somewhat different picture, with a much wider range of possibilities Convergence insufficiency with unilateral exophoria at near in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder - a preliminary study. Adrian A Chrobak. Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka. Michał Biela. Aleksandra Arciszewska. Marcin Siwek. Maciej Wojciech Pilecki
Convergence insufficiency exophoria was defined as near point of convergence exceeding 10 cm and positive fusional vergence at 40 cm below 16∆. Eye and visually related symptoms were defined as clinically significant when the total CISS score exceeded 15, as suggested in earlier studies (Borsting et al. 1999 , 2003 ; Convergence Insufficiency. with Convergence Insufficiency Bruce Teitelbaum*, Exophoria at near at least 4 greater than at distance. CI symptom score 16. Willingness to participate in the study and wear two pairs of eyeglasses consecutively. Exclusion criteria Constant strabismus at distance or at near Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular (two-eyed) vision disorder in which the eyes do not work at near easily. An eye teaming problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward when reading or doing close work (exophoria at near). If the eyes do drift out, the person is likely to have double vision
Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess Abstract Background To determine the sensitivity and specificity of school nurse screening for hypermetropia and convergence insufficiency exophoria (CIE) in schoolchildren. Methods Near point of c.. Convergence insufficiency. Deviation is worse at near, and the patient has an abnormal near point of convergence. f.Consecutive exotropia- the patient has a history of esotropia treated with glasses or surgery, and subsequently converts to displaying an exodeviation. Physical Examinatio
Convergence insufficiency is a prevalent and distinct binocular vision disorder. Typical symptoms include double vision, eyestrain, headaches, and blurred vision while reading. It affects approximately 5% of children in the United States, and may have a serious impact on an individual's performance in school, choice of jobs, and quality of life convergence insufficiency: that condition in which an exophoria or exotropia is more marked for near vision than for far vision
Divergence Excess Exophoria at distance > Exophoria at near More common in women and blacks In its typical form, this is an intermittent divergent squint for distance vision with compensated exophoria for near vision. The prevalence of DE is approximately 0.03 percent of the population. DE strabismus has a strong hereditary predisposition The exophoria at near often recurs after several years, although most patients remain asymptomatic. Prevalence. Among fifth and sixth grade children convergence insufficiency is 13%. In studies that used standardized definitions of Convergence insufficiency, investigators have reported a prevalence of 4.2% to 6% in school and clinic settings Childhood exotropia (outward deviation) is a horizontal exodeviation characterised by visual axis forming a divergent angle. It usually begins as exophoria. Exophoria is a condition in which eyes are straight without deviation when both eyes are open. However, eye under cover deviates on cover-uncover test or alternate cover test. It may progress to exotropia which [
Diagnosis of convergence insufficiency is made by an eye care professional skilled in binocular vision dysfunctions to rule out any organic disease. Convergence insufficiency characterized by one or more of the following diagnostic findings: High exophoria at near, reduced accommodative convergence / accommodation ratio, receded near-point of. in the treatment of convergence insufficiency when used as part of a more intensive orthoptic program. Base-in prism glasses should be reserved for reduction of symptoms in the presbyopic population. Keywords . asthenopia, convergence insufficiency, exophoria, orthoptics, pencil push-ups, vision therapy . Introductio Convergence insufficiency characterized by one or more of the following diagnostic findings: Patient symptoms, High exophoria at near, Some patients with convergence insufficiency have concurrent accommodative insufficiency—accommodative amplitudes should therefore also be measured in symptomatic patients.. Myopia, Astigmatism, Exophoria, Convergence, Convergence Insufficiency Introduction Myopia or nearsightedness, is a refractive error, which means that the eye does not bend or refract light properly Convergence insufficiency: | | | Convergence Insufficiency | | | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and.
onvergence insufficiency (CI) was first described by von Grae-fe in 1855.1 This non-strabismic, binocu-lar vision disorder is a common condition that usually presents with asthenopia and performance problems. Clinical signs are: exophoria greater at near than at distance, a receded near point of convergence (NPC), reduced positive fusional. eye pain - convergence insufficiency, exophoria santo81. Iam Myopiac with LE : 5.0, 1.5, 170 deg RE : 4.5, 1.5, 5 deg sph, cyl, axis respectively. From last 8 years Iam wearing spectacles, since 6 years Iam suffering great amounts of eye pain and headaches intermittently, after repeated consultations with many opthomologists their attribution. Convergence insufficiency is a problem commonly seen in optometric practice. It is a syndrome that consists of greater exophoria at far than at near, a decreased near point of convergence, reduced positive relative convergence at near, and reduced negative relative accomodation. It is one of the easiest binocular visual anamolies to treat with.
eMedicine - Convergence Insufficiency . Exophoria A significant exophoria [A tendency of one eye to turn outward] at near with inadequate fusional convergence [the coordination of the separate images of the same object in the two eyes into one] appears to be the primary underlying problem. eMedicine - Convergence Insufficiency Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is the inability to maintain the two eyes together while working at a near distance. It is a sensory and neuromuscular anomaly of the binocular visual system. Classic convergence insufficiency (CI) consists of a receded near point of convergence (NPC), exophoria at near, reduced positive fusional convergence.
A new Optometrist who diagnosed this as convergence insufficiency with intermittent alternating exotropia and said that it can be easily treated with VT and exercises. She said that Ophthalmologists are too eager to perform surgery but it can be treated with less invasive methods like exercises. 2 Burian classified intermittent exotropia into three types: basic exotropia (BE), DE, and convergence insufficiency (CI). 16 In basic exotropia, the distance deviation is within 10 pd of the near deviation. In DE, the distance deviation is greater than near by 10 pd. DE can be further classified intro true vs. simulated divergence excess First of all, there was no correlation with the amount of exophoria or near point of convergence and the magnitude of patient's symptoms. Many patients, by definition, with convergence. We found Dr. X by doing a search on the web for vision problems and Justin was diagnosed as having trouble with his eyes working together as a team, and they tended to point outward instead of straight ahead [exophoria, convergence insufficiency]. As a result, he was seeing double and having blurred vision
BACKGROUND: Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision disorder in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) with difficulty turning the eyes inward when reading or doing close work Objective: This report describes the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), the first large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI) in children.We also report the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients. Methods: We prospectively randomized children 9 to 17 years of age. Convergence disorder or convergence insufficiency happens when the human eyes cannot coordinate and work jointly/collectively when a person is attempting to concentrate on a nearby item. The cause of Convergence disorder is unknown and researchers are still working on it. Convergence disorder or concergence insufficiency is a two eyed vision disorder also known as binocular vision disorder.